Seizures are caused by sudden electrical discharge by neurons in the central nervous system.Seizures can be provoked by many things or can occur unprovoked. If seizures are repetitive and unprovoked, they are defined as epilepsy.

Seizures may be caused by structural changes in the brain: strokes, tumors, vascular anomalies or scars.Toxic or metabolic changes in the body can also trigger seizure events: low sugar,alcohol,medication. Genetic causes are a third possible cause of seizures. Sometimes it is not possible to determine the cause of the seizures.

Evaluation may include imaging studies, EEG and laboratory analysis.

There are many choices of anti-epileptic medications, and therapy is tailored toward each patient individually.